After the exciting long weekend which was had at the Crannog Centre, we have returned with renewed zeal to our excavation. The wet weather this week has hindered our work somewhat, but we have persevered through it even though we almost broke down and rented scuba gear. All the backfilling was completed over the weekend so when we arrived at the site, we had a new area to excavate! We have moved the fencing to the east of where we originally excavated and started test pitting to find new headstones. Test pitting involves marking out square metres and using shovels to remove the top layer of grass. Trowels are then used to excavate and see if any new headstones can be found. The pits have been placed at regular intervals in the gaps between the visible headstones. As the visible stones appear to be on a straight line, it is believed that any missing stones fall somewhere along this line. Archaeology – as much as it is a science – also involves a little bit of guesswork and also a little bit of luck. So far, no headstones have been identified but a selection of glass, ceramic, and metal has already been found which is very exciting.
Even though the artefacts we have found are close to the surface, we treat all our artefacts with the same interest, even the red LEGO brick which was found today. It is important to record everything we find during the excavation as they all help to tell the story of the site and to a wider extent the story of Dunfermline. Even though we might laugh at finding some LEGOs in a graveyard it helps to tell the story of the graveyard and the living people who walk through it as well as the people who are buried. All of the artefacts are placed in artefact trays in the field, they are then washed and sorted according to their type. Although the process can be long and time-consuming, finds processing is important and has to be performed carefully and with respect. If the process is not followed properly then information can be lost. As archaeology is naturally destructive, to an extent, it is important that all information is correctly recorded. Even though we can re-excavate, we will not find the same information.
This doesn’t mean that the processes isn’t fun for students. While finds processing can get a bit boring, especially the washing parts, sometimes students like to listen to audiobooks or music. However, a new activity was thought of where a story would be told but each person could only say one sentence at a time. Today we had the opportunity to hear a very long story about a farmer wanting to build a stone tower which ended with his friend Timothy who was a deer going into the sky so he could dance with the stars. Timothy’s friends would then watch the night sky to see him dancing across it. It’s events and times like these that bring us shovel-bum friends closer together on rainy, drizzly days.
Due to the rain, the students had the opportunity to participate in a bone casting workshop. It is a two-part workshop due to the long drying processes. Bone casting is important for archaeologists as it gives us the opportunity to study bones and display them without damaging the original bone. This week students made two different types of moulds using finger and toe bones. One of the methods used involved covering the bones with a pink goo, which was the colour of a strawberry milkshake. It looked very delicious… The other methods used a rich chocolate brown goo to surround the bone. These moulds then have a whole week to set before the next workshop when we will be using them to make casts of the bones. The students had a lot of fun making the moulds and are looking forward to the next stage of the cast making process.
Excavating a cemetery is a privilege which every student is aware of. When we excavate, it is important to remember that these were real people who lived and worked in Dunfermline not that long ago. As future archaeologists, it is our responsibility to excavate and record the information we find so that we can respect them and bring these people back to life in some small way. Archaeologists can give the dead their voices back and show how even though we might seem very different to these people they are not that different in the end.
Our group spent four days at the Scottish Crannog Centre’s “Celts are Coming” festival which celebrated all things Iron Age. The banks of Loch Tay were littered with diverse craftspeople, tradespeople, and community outreach volunteers from all over the world. It brought together all types of talented individuals, from leather workers, to stonemasons, to artists, to Iron Age culinary specialists, to us archaeologists, and more. The aim of our group’s presence at this excellent event was to introduce archaeology to visiting members of the public and to help raise awareness (and funds!) about the Centre’s effort to move to a new, larger site across the loch. It also served as a much-needed retreat from the modern world for a few days.
But perhaps most importantly, at least to many of us archaeologists and archaeology students, was the ability to engage with the experimental side of our profession. We often study the theories and artefacts in a rather detached manner, and rarely do we get to experience or understand the process behind artefacts and past lifestyles. This festival allowed us to venture into the experimental archaeology side, an experience of which I know I will always cherish. Many of us participated in workshops ranging from Iron Age cooking to silver casting to tablet weaving, and the following posts will introduce students’ experiences with this hands-on learning approach and the wider festival experience in general. Even more than the workshops were the intense atmospheric feelings of being sent back in time 2,500 years ago. These states of mind were fostered by the reconstructed Crannog sitting on Loch Tay’s moody bank, the moss-covered dugout boats and coracles lining the shore, and all of us dressed in ‘quintessential’ Iron Age garb to enhance the “living history” aspect to the festival. We came away from the festival richer in knowledge and emotional connection to this often-under-celebrated time period and its past inhabitants.
Stuart: Let’s do the Time Warp
If you haven’t visited the Crannog Centre, then it’s hard to put into words the feeling of being there. Sitting in the fading light of the sun as the waves lap slowly against the shore and looking at the world through the eyes of someone perched upon the same rock in 550BC is a wholly unique feeling unlike anything I’ve ever experienced. A view of the Crannog which harks back to a simpler time, before the incessant buzz of social media, the aggressive rumble of roadside traffic, and the impossibly bizarre political landscapes. It was a true escape from reality which only amplified the more time we spent there. Returning to the modernity of Dunfermline felt alien by the time we left the Centre – but I’m getting ahead of myself.
For me, the Crannog Centre was less a place and more of an experience, and one which I won’t soon forget. The sound of pan flutes chasing the birds through the trees, hammer blows from the black smith echoing across the calm waters of the loch, and laughter mixing with the pleasant scent of stews and cheeses made with traditional techniques wafting over make for some incredibly special moments. By far the most memorable however, was the look on people’s faces, enthused about archaeology.
“Community” has a double-page spread in my dictionary because of how important I think it is – especially in relation to archaeology. After all, what is the purpose of archaeology if not to deliver what we learn to the public? The staff at the Crannog Centre asked us to run a dig box to give people a very basic introduction to archaeology as a discipline. After very (very, very) carefully planting a selection of horse bones, pottery, and loom weights among other things into the compost, we invited people to come give it a try. Seeing the look on a child’s face as they carefully uncover a horse vertebra or listen intently as you explain that, when it comes down to it, archaeology is about going through people’s bins really does make the stress of starting fires for breakfast or trying not to crash your very unstable log boat all the more worthwhile.
If you haven’t visited the Crannog Centre then you must, even for just a few hours. There really is nothing like it short of a time machine.
Annika: Sheep, Smoke, and Sweat
Despite the pervasive smell of sheep, smoke, and sweat, and many sleepless nights in a wet field, the weekend I spent at the Crannog center was one of the best weekends of my life. When we arrived, we sat under the woodworking tent, eating greasy chips, trying on Iron Age costumes, and coming up with historical personas for ourselves.
We thought about the people who might have formed the Crannog community in the iron age – fisher-women and farmers, spiritual leaders, and blacksmiths, to name a few. The next morning the Crannog village was bustling with activity as all the demonstrators prepared for the visitors to arrive. We braided each other’s hair, painted “Celtic” symbols on our faces, and went over our imaginary backstories. I was Myfanwy, a spiritual community leader who lived in the Crannog. Stuart was a farmer who came down from Caithness after his home was flooded. Cass was Aife, an archer who protected the Crannog community.
Our stories became more elaborate and ridiculous as the weekend went on. We joked about them, but I really did feel like an Iron Age woman that weekend. Marie the weaver taught me how to spin yarn from raw wool and I spent the weekend with my spinning in hand. I had three balls of yarn by the end and was still spinning on the bus back. Stuart and Rob played endless rounds of the ancient Roman dice game called Legion and made their own set to take back to Dunfermline.
On Friday night we all slept in the Crannog. It was warm enough when the fire was still burning, but I was sleeping in one of the stables and woke up around dawn from the cold. I wrapped myself in my cloak and stood outside on the causeway to watch the sunrise. I could hear the birds and the water lapping against the piles, and see the mist lifting from the loch. Our Iron Age ancestors, I reflected, would have heard and seen much the same things every morning. After a while, I returned to my stable in the Crannog and burrowed down under the bracken, wool, and animal hides. It struck me that Aife, or Mfanwy, would probably have more to tell me about the world than I would have to tell her; she could spin, and weave, and fish, and make a meal from what grew in the wild. There is a common misconception that people in the past were unintelligent, but I believe that we could learn a great deal from studying their lives. Besides how to spin a good yarn, I learned the importance of having empathy with the past that we study.
Ryan: The unending torture that is not living in a Crannog
Volunteering at the Crannog centre has changed my life and many others for the better; however, staying just one night in the Crannog itself has ruined everything for me. Just knowing that I may never spend one more night there haunts me and chills me to the very core of my soul.
I have never known an environment more comfortable and inviting. The scent of bracken, wool, smoke, and the warmth of the hearth alongside the setting of a recreated Iron Age settlement nested on the banks of Loch Tay was a step back in time.
Joanna: A Personal Development
I admit that during the days leading up to our visit to the Crannog centre, I had mixed feelings about it: on the one hand, I was very excited to see the site and enjoy the festival; on the other hand, the prospect of having to volunteer with children filled me with dread.
I should probably insert a disclaimer here: I don’t hate children. I have labelled myself as ‘bad with children’ and as a result I get anxious around them and do my best to avoid them if at all possible. Well, at the Crannog centre it just wasn’t possible! Although the ‘Celts are Coming’ festival was aimed at all ages, it was primarily a great way to introduce children to the world of archaeology. On top of that, our area was mostly comprised of a dig box for kids to try their hand at digging, an illustration stand, and a pottery stand – all perfect activities for children. So, there was really no way out for me – I had to suck it up and pretend to care about Peppa Pig, or whatever it is that the youth are into these days.
The first day went slightly better than expected. I spent some time at the dig box with a little boy, and we got on relatively well. He seemed to like me, at least. However, throughout the whole thing I was feeling quite uncomfortable and out of my element; and by the time he left, I was drained and needed some time to recover before I could face interacting with anyone under the age of 16.
Luckily, that level of anxiety is not sustainable. Despite myself, over the next few days I started to relax around the children I was working with. I taught a little girl how to draw eyes, and with another girl we discussed her crush on Mike from Stranger Things while playing with the dig box. Generally, the conversation seemed to flow more naturally, and I even started to enjoy my time with them.
On our last day at the Crannog centre, I was helping to run the pottery stand and, as I have zero pottery skills myself, all I could do was sit there and chat with the kids as they played with the clay. This turned out to be a good thing, because we were able to talk about other things they were interested in. Two of them in particular were very excited to talk to me about their creative projects – one was a budding writer, the other extremely skilled with clay – and I was so impressed by them that we ended up chatting for quite some time and we had a wonderful time together. They even gave me their pottery creations – a dog named Persephone and a snake named Aurora – and instructed me to keep them forever, which I happily agreed to. Eventually they had to leave for a tour, but they both came back before leaving the site to give me a hug and say goodbye. I was surprised at how much I enjoyed talking to them, and how special it felt to know that I had given them as great an experience as they had given me.
I am probably still not going to go out of my way to be around children; walking down the street, I’ll probably keep pointing out dogs instead of babies. However, I can say with confidence that because of our visit to the Crannog centre, I don’t feel the need to do everything in my power to avoid children anymore. This visit gave me the opportunity to confront my fear and explore a skillset I hadn’t realised I had, and for that I am very grateful.
Gordon: A Blast from the Past and a Phenomenal Experience
The location of the Crannog Centre really added to our weekend experience. Loch Tay is not only a scenic and tranquil area, but the combination of water and tree-covered hillsides really helped visitors feel that it would have been a practical and pleasant area to live in during the Iron Age. One can immediately see how the environment would work to make living there viable, with the proximity of timber for fuel and wood- working, and water for drinking and transportation. Many of us felt that the place was special, and that was even before we’d had the privilege of visiting the Crannog itself and overnighting there. The visiting crafts people and resident team made the place come alive and allowed us to better reflect on and respect those who lived and worked the area in the past. Ben Lawers prominent in the distance over Loch Tay added to the feeling that the area was special, as did exploring a little beyond Kenmore and to Acharn with its atmospheric walk through woodland to the waterfall.
Seeing the place so buzzing and dynamic that weekend really shows the value of a centre that can bring history to life. It would be great to have that on a more expansive, permanent basis, and so I welcome the plans to have an enlarged site where there is more space on the far shore of the loch, just beyond Kenmore. It would allow more of the public to experience and appreciate the area and its history, as well as the skills of craft folk past and present. There is definite potential for both tourism and education and it could also be a great opportunity to support rural crafts, not to mention training more people in these skills. There is currently no other place like this in Scotland or with a Crannog elsewhere in Britain. I hope that the Scottish Government and public will support the Crannog Centre’s development plans and truly create a living museum and national centre of excellence. Then others could truly enjoy the experience, as we surely did.
Nikki: Weaving a Memory from Cotton Thread
On Monday of the Celts are Coming festival I took part in a tablet weaving workshop with the incomparable Marie Henderson! Tablet weaving (or card weaving as it’s sometimes known), is a technique where the material is threaded through cards with holes. The result of this threading is the creation of the warp, the shed for the weft material to be passed through, and the unique pattern of the finished product.
As this was my first time weaving, I was given cardboard tablets and mercerized cotton to use. Mercerized cotton is a type of thread that has been given a series of hydroxide/acid baths increasing its lustre and making it easier to work with; conversely, materials like wool often stick to each other forcing you to adjust them with each pass of the weft. For the first of my two attempts, Marie had already gone through the tedious task of preparing the cards for me. One side of the cotton threads were knotted and tied to a post, and the other end was looped through a belt around my hips, in between myself and the post were the cards (which I believe totaled 18). I was then handed a shuttle which was wrapped with cotton thread that matched the colour on the outside edge of the pattern, this would be my weft. The holes in the cards are placed in such a way that each card had two threads running from the top and two threads running from the bottom which meet at the edge of the weave and form a triangle called the shed. It’s through the shed that I would pass my shuttle and weft leaving a little bit of slack. After running the shuttle through, the entire stack of cards in the center is rotated either toward or away from oneself. This action twists the material and creates a new shed for the next row of the weft. However, before passing the weft through, I would tamp down the previous row with the edge of my shuttle, making the weave tight and pull through the extra portion of slack I had left behind to create a clean and straight edge. For this particular pattern, I would continue to rotate the cards in one direction until the back twist became such that I would have to begin rotating in the other direction and reverse the pattern. I would then continue doing this for the entire length of the piece… easy, right?
For my second piece, I was first shown how to thread the cards based on a premade pattern. Because the cards we were working with had four holes, the corresponding patterns were then gridded 4 by the width of the pattern, which is essentially however many cards you can comfortably rotate with your hands, in this case only 12. To thread the cards, we wrapped our cotton thread in a figure 8 around the handles of two clamps at either side of the table in the order that the colours would appear in the pattern. This is a rather tedious process, as each time the colour in the pattern would change the old colour would need to be cut and the new one tied to it. After creating our figure 8 of material, the apex where they crossed each other was secured and one end of the loop tied off and placed under a weighty object to keep the design from shifting as we carded. This looping method ensures that all of the threads are in the appropriate order of colour, so you don’t get confused when carding long and complicated patterns. After this rigamarole, I was again strapped to my post and began weaving our new pattern!
Unlike the first where I would rotate in one direction until I couldn’t anymore, this second pattern required me to rotate first 5 times in one direction, and then reverse the pattern 5 times in the other direction. This, along with the placement of the threads through the cards, created a diamond pattern while also allowing the finished product to look smooth without a jarring break in the pattern. I know that I make this sound like a complicated process, but in actuality, it was SO relaxing and straightforward once you got into the groove. Not only had I completed two separate gorgeous weavings; at the end of the day, I had also picked up a new addiction and made a lifelong friend in Marie!
Sarah & Jenny: Iron Age Food
We attended an amazing workshop at the Scottish Crannog Centre with Caroline from Pario Gallico Historical Food and Crafts. Using only the implements and raw ingredients available in the Iron Age and cooking over hot coals, we created some absolutely delicious dishes. The first thing we made was cheese. This was done by warming milk in a pot in the embers and adding malt vinegar until it turned into curds and whey. We then strained it through a piece of fine cloth. We halved the cheese and made a sweet one with honey, nuts and cherries, and a savoury one with wild garlic. Mmmmm, Iron Age cheese!
For the main course we chopped vegetables (parsnip, turnip, kale and cabbage) and pork with Iron Age knives and threw them in a cauldron over the fire with some water and lentils. While this was stewing, we went foraging for peas (to throw in the stew) and raspberries (for dessert).
Then we learned the easy way to whip up some handmade butter. Literally handmade. A small amount of cream was added to a small bowl and with our fingers we stirred for a few minutes until it magically turned into beautiful butter. The warmth of our hands under the bowl and in the cream speeds up the process. The BBC Travel Show presenter who was filming the festival came while we were making the butter and joined in, so keep an eye out over the next few weeks, maybe we will make an appearance?!
With the buttermilk that separated from the butter, added to flour, honey and salt, we made dough. Each of us chose whatever ingredients we wanted to add for flavour and we cooked them in a pan over the hot coals to make flat bread. Our favourite was poppy seeds and cheese, loaded with the fresh butter! Wild garlic with butter was also a great choice. The bread was ready in time to eat with the hearty stew. We learnt that Iron Age food was in no way bland or boring, as is often imagined.
We finished the day with a warm custard pudding and fresh berries, and then washed up Iron Age style using scrubbing brushes and salt. It was overall a very educational and enjoyable day and was well worth it. If you get the chance to do a workshop with Caroline, we highly recommend you do it.
Jo: Elvis is Still King (of the Crannog)
Every day at the Scottish Crannog Centre is an amazing experience, but to have the chance to be involved in running activities for the Iron Age festival was both an honour and a privilege. Surrounded by the sights, smells, and sounds of the ancients becomes a total immersive experience which transported me back to a simpler time and allowed me to reconnect with the landscape of my ancestors.
We were all warmly welcomed by the staff and our fellow volunteers, forming new friendships and rekindling old ones, I quickly felt like part of the Crannog community. There were many firsts for me, sitting in the fire pit cooking eggs and bacon for twenty is an experience not to be forgotten, as is carving my very first spoon. Learning carving techniques from some of the very best craftspeople was both inspirational and humbling. Hopefully there will be many more spoons to follow, I may even branch out to make other items when I’ve learned how to not cut myself in the process.
The star of the show, however, must go to Elvis the goose. The adopted father of a flock of ducklings, waddling around the centre as their chief protector made me smile every time I saw him. Words can’t really express how amazing the whole experience was and I cannot thank everyone enough for their kindness over the weekend. It is something which must be experienced to be truly appreciated and I highly recommend everyone visit at least once.
Rob: We are Legion
I feel that others have perfectly captured the collective experience that is the Scottish
Crannog Centre. I must agree that the Crannog Centre is certainly more of an experience
than a place and is absolutely something that needs to be experienced by everyone! In
order to avoid repetition, I will instead speak of something that particularly captured both
my attention and imagination: the Roman dice game, Legion.
As a returning volunteer to the centre’s annual Celts are Coming festival, I had a reasonable expectation of the event and its fantastic community. However, in true Crannog Centre fashion, there is always a new learning experience with every visit. In this instance I was drawn to the simplicity of Legion, which coupled with the atmosphere created by the other demonstrators producing an Iron Age village which is as close to the original than I ever thought possible, meant for a truly memorable visit.
The game is played using 6 dice, which obviously display Roman numerals rather than the traditional dots. Points are accrued by making certain combinations and I have been told it is a “less forgiving Yahtzee.” The idea was for us to play a number of games and invite the public to join in. This seemed to be a popular activity for visitors of all ages, even after they were handed a brutal defeat at my hands! However, the Legion fun did not end at closing time as the game proved so popular amongst the students that we soon had high score boards and I have returned to Dunfermline with my notepad full of Legion scores. As well as my very own set of Legion dice which I carved on the beach overlooking the Crannog.
My time at the Crannog Centre amounted to so much more than Legion, although I feel the simplicity and enjoyment is a great analogy of my Crannog experience. It was definitely surprising for me that I enjoyed the simplicity of this ancient game; last year, being a mobile phone addict, I was slightly apprehensive to be transported back to more simpler times. It is a testament to both the game of Legion and to my broader Crannog experience that I lost my phone for nearly 48 hours of my trip and didn’t really care!
Stephanie: Hnefatafl is Life
One of the most fascinating stations at the Crannog Centre was the one focused on Iron Age games. The most popular game on the table (besides Legion) was Hnefatafl. Technically it is not an Iron Age game as it dates to the Viking Age, but this does not detract from the everyone’s enjoyment of the game. It is a strategy game which involves one player attempting to get their king piece to one of the four corners of the board and the other player attempting to capture the king. Although it takes a moment to get used to once you are invested it is difficult to stop playing.
Hnefatafl is part of a larger family of games called Tafl games which were played throughout northern Europe until the 12th century when they were replaced by chess. All of the games within this family were strategy games where the aim was to capture the other players pieces. It is believed that this family of games may have been based on ludus latrunculorum. This was a Roman game which also involved two payers attempting to capture each other’s pieces. Although the exact rules are unknown it is generally believed to be a war game. The first mention of ludus latrunculorum is found in the tenth book by Varro titled De Lingua Latina. Previous to this, other strategy games involving two teams were recorded by Greek writer Julius Pollux in Onomasticon. Plato wrote in Phaedrus about strategy games called seega which originated in Egypt.
It was interesting to learn about the history of strategy games and enjoy a game which, thousands of years ago, people who are different to us also enjoyed. Although none of us have many things in common with the Vikings, we have this thread in the form of Hnefatafl which connects us all. One of the joys of strategy games like this one is that they are timeless and can provide an rather strong connection to the past. So, every time you enjoy the thrill of chess take a moment to think about the past Viking, Roman, Greek, and Egyptian game players who are all part of the story.
Josie: A Peaceful Venture
For me, the whole weekend was an amazing once-in-a-lifetime experience. I got to sleep in
a Crannog, I met some insanely talented people, and I got to learn more about a period of
history that I am passionate about. However, besides waking up in a Crannog, the best
experience for me happened towards the end of the third day.
On the third day, Gordon had gone on a
walk, coming back with a story of a
trail that led to a waterfall. Of course,
this led some of us to want to see this
waterfall for ourselves, so when the
work day had ended and we were free
to explore, four of us set up the road to
the next village, where we had been
told the trail started.
The walk to the village was fairly straightforward, simply following the road until we saw the sign indicating the way to the waterfall. However, we were not expecting the trek to be so uphill and steep. Stopping to catch our breath a couple of times, we were starting to wonder whether it would be worth it to carry on. The fact that we knew we were so close along with the pictures that Gordon had shown us persuaded us to keep on going though, as we knew something amazing would be waiting for us. This ended up being the right decision.
The first indicator that we were getting close was a sign for a ‘squatters cave’ which we
followed. Going through the cave, which turned out to be more of a tunnel, we came out
onto a balcony of sorts. Here we got our first look at the waterfall. Even though there was
still some space between us and the waterfall, the sight really was amazing, especially
when you stopped and listened to the sound it was making. When we realized that we
could get even closer, we set off again on the trail.
From this point the trail was leading us through more of a forest, furthering my opinion
that Scotland has some of the best scenery that I have ever experienced. This was again
only amplified when we finally reached the waterfall, especially as there was a wooden
bridge running over the top that led us to see both sides, along with all the pools and
caverns bellow us. The fact that something so beautiful had been created by nature, and
that it was simply a 40 minute walk from the Crannog Centre where we were staying,
almost blows my mind, reminding me that nature can create the most beautiful structures,
and that so many people will have experienced this waterfall before us.
When we crossed the bridge, we decided to stop and sit for a while before heading back.
Listening to the water trickling below and seeing the greenery around us gave this spot an
almost magical feel. Mixed with witnessing the mist rolling off Loch Tay around the
Crannog in the mornings, I was constantly reminded during this weekend of the fairytales I
heard as a child, and I can appreciate how our ancient ancestors believed in the gods and
goddesses in nature.
Being more of an introverted person, this weekend had given me more social interaction than I would normally be comfortable with, and I was beginning to feel slightly drained. This walk gave me a chance to sit in a secluded area with spectacular surroundings. Even though there were three other people on the walk with me I was still able to feel a bit more like myself again. I know if I am ever stressed out, I can think about this walk and I will remember just how amazing this world can be, and that – like the waterfall itself- sometimes chaos is needed in order to create a sense of calm.
The Crannog Centre is built on memories and experience; not just the memories of those living in the past, but the people here and now forging new memories at this unforgettable place. It is clear from the memories written above that our experience over the last four days will truly last us a lifetime. It brought us all closer together and allowed us to cross over into the Iron Age for a little while – truly an archaeologist’s dream. We want to extend our sincere thanks and appreciation the hard-working staff at the Crannog Centre who made the weekend truly unforgettable. Thank you for looking after us and letting us help showcase the wonder that is the Crannog Centre and the “Celts are Coming” festival. We hope that our presence at the festival inspired the next generation of archaeologists. Go forth and dig.
~ Pittencrief Field School 2019 students and staff
New discoveries resurface in the search for Dunfermline’s past …
As part of the Pittencrieff Field School, a group of archaeological volunteers and archaeology students have been searching part of Dunfermline Abbey’s old graveyard. We hope to find some of the grave markers that have submerged below ground level over time. One of the more recent intriguing discoveries has been a long border stone surrounding a grave plot that unexpectedly extended, but only one side.
This discovery was entirely by chance (as is a lot of archaeology…) as the area around the grave was being cleaned, prepped to be drawn and photographed for our records. However, in one corner there was part of a metal bracket peeking through and once we’d dug under a tree root, we found it was connected to another stone heading west. This was a bit different from the other stones we have been working on, so we excavated to see if it was just an isolated, broken piece or marker or an indication of another plot. Gordon noticed some marks on the top which, when cleaned, started to resemble letters… intriguing. As the team worked further, Stuart found what was indeed a second row of letters and we then could decipher the word “daughter.” What came next was a surname and a date that we think reads to be “1831.”
More writing was found and then a second set of inscriptions. Roots hid the next part, so we dug around a bit and found they had snapped the stone, with a part broken off. Fortunately, keen eyes spotted two small pieces of dark rock that when put onto the main stone contained the missing inscriptions. We continued to ‘chase’ (follow) the stone until we found the end. It was then that Nikki found the third inscription! Roots still cover part of it, but after Josie cleaned the top, we could see that it was written in memory of two daughters and a son.
Checking throughout the Abbey graveyards, the team have since a few similar ones on the eastern side of the Abbey, but of recent date. With the information now gathered, it is hoped that local historians will be able to find out more about this particular family, and hence the history of Dunfermline and its residents whose eternal resting place lies in the Abbey graveyard.
Artefact Awareness: Glass!
One of the more common artefacts that we find on site are glass fragments. These have come in a variety of sizes and colours, ranging from tiny shards to intact bottles, and from clear to light blue to dark green colours. While we cannot be certain as to the exact functions of these finds, we can deduce our own speculations based on our own knowledge of the site. For example, while the graveyard was still being used for burials, we know that members of the public would dump their rubbish on site despite being asked to refrain from doing so. This could mean that some of the artefacts we are finding are pieces of trash that someone wanted to dispose of.
At the same time, just around the corner of the Abbey behind where we are currently digging was a grocers that specialised in making and selling bottled ‘Champagne Ginger Beer.’ As this shop belonged to Gilbert Rae, he would have his name printed on the bottles that were produced in his shop. While most of the fragments of glass that we have found are too small to know their specific purpose, we have been lucky enough to find large enough sections of glass bottles, some of which have been inscribed with Gilbert’s name. This could indicate that some of the bottles produced in the factory were then dumped into the graveyard, either by the workers or by the public.
The days are flying by during our first week of the field school, and as of day 4 we are still trying to wrap up our work in Area 2 of the site in order to move to the yet unstarted Area 3. However, this is proving to be a task more difficult than initially planned as we have had trouble pulling ourselves away from the seemingly unending new features that keep popping up as we clean the trench. To tidy up our excavation areas, there are several jobs that need to be done – recording, backfilling, and most importantly, keeping our students from finding new features! The discovery of new features during the last few days have given our supervisors severe mental trauma… we think this is mostly because every time we find a new feature, it’s one less day used towards backfilling the trench!
Site recording is well underway as Jenny and Annika have been drawing the section of the southernmost table stone of Area 2 while Josie and Joanna cleaned the curbstone just below. Several other students have teamed up to work on uncovering the edges of a curbstone of the northernmost table stone in Area 2. Cleaning these areas has unveiled artifacts similar in quality to what has been uncovered the past few days so at least the artifacts are proving consistent. These artifacts include loose animal bone shards that have been cast aside, slag and iron nails strewn between the thick mesh of roots and stones, as well as the odd oyster shell, pottery/glass shards.
Artefact Awareness: Clay Pipes
The humble clay pipe originated in England in the late 16th century and went on to gain significant popularity in Britain and Europe over the following centuries. As clay pipes were cheap, common items, they were easily disposable and, when combined with the sturdy nature of its material, it means that they often turn up in large quantities in archaeological sites. Archaeologists often have a soft spot for clay pipes as they are very useful for dating sites and identifying connections with other areas. The length of the stem, the shape of the bowl, and any decorative marks all help to identify the location of origin and the time period of the pipe.
Fragments of clay pipes have been a common find on our site so far, but over the past couple of days we have found two clay pipe bowls that are almost perfectly intact! Our on-site self-proclaimed clay pipe ‘expert’ [don’t give him any ideas ;)] has estimated one pipe to date back to roughly the 17th century, and the other pipe to the 19th century, or possibly later. Back in the day, Dunfermline was home to several clay pipe manufacturers, such as William Richmond, so it’s possible that our pipes were locally made; however, Scotland had a high demand for clay pipes made in the Netherlands, so it’s also possible that our clay pipes have travelled very far indeed!
Day three started off with a group meeting so everyone could catch up with the activities in all areas of the site. Tasks were allocated as we want to wrap up the current corner of the graveyard and move to a different section tomorrow.
Some people were still excavating one part of the site, while others were prepping areas to be documented. Time was taken to clean the areas around a few of the gravestones in order to make sure they are nice and clean for the photographs. Once the photos are taken and the stones recorded on our site plan, they will be covered or “backfilled” with soil. Cleaning these gravestones involved troweling the delicate sections to ensure a clean profile edge, brushing the debris from the top of the gravestones, and scraping the dirt out from the inscribed letters to make them more legible. This ensured that no crucial details would be missed when taking the photographs and makes it easier for the final measurements to be taken.
Students were also introduced to the dumpy level process. For those who don’t know, a dumpy level is a piece of equipment used in surveying which measures the height of something (a feature, artefact location, gravestone, etc.) in relation to a known height above sea level, based on the National Grid System. The dumpy level sits atop a tripod and is used in conjunction with a measuring staff. This is important because it provides a three- dimensional element to our recording and this lets us record the heights of our excavated gravestones. The recording process is a vital aspect of archaeology and helps to preseve and document features and sites for posterity.
The Ethics of Digging in a Graveyard
One of the most common jokes we get as archaeologists involved in a graveyard project is that we are grave robbers. We laugh it off, but there are some serious issues that come with this job. Some people have very strong feelings about the moral and ethical implications of graveyard archaeology and believe the dead should rest in peace for eternity.
So how do we justify the ethical issues associated with digging up human remains?
To start, there are specific laws governing the excavation of human remains. These laws vary within each country and can influence the treatment and preservation of the remains before, during, and after excavation. In addition to this, the majority of burial sites require passes and permits before any sort of archaeology work is allowed. Extra-special care must also be taken for sites with existing ancestral ties, such as Native American burial grounds in the United States which themselves are governed by the 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA).
If a graveyard is in danger of being disrupted or destroyed – for example, from modern construction or natural hazards – then archaeologists are brought in to examine the site in more detail and to help stabilize, preserve, or relocate the graves.
The other important factor which differentiates archaeologists from common grave robbers is the detailed recording and analytical process which enables us to form a picture of the past that would otherwise be unknown. The copious scientific and historical information that can be discovered from graveyard archaeology includes past uses of cemeteries, burial practices, the health and lifestyles of people, and attitudes towards death and dying, among many other social practices and beliefs. We ensure to conduct ourselves with respect and we handle human remains with the dignity they deserve. All human remains are reinterred in a timely and respectful manner, as is expected of our profession and the laws which govern our actions.
So while bystanders may think it funny to shout off a quip about us being modern-day grave robbers, not all of us archaeologists find this simile amusing! We take our profession and actions within a graveyard very seriously and we hope to educate the public about why graveyard archaeology is beneficial to understanding human history.
We’ve had a busy day in the trench on day 2 as the sun has finally returned and the puddles have (mostly) dried! As we no longer need scuba gear to enter the trench, we could dive right into the mud and start digging. The agenda for today included a multitude of tasks as we’re keen to finish digging and recording this trench before moving over to the other side of the graveyard by the late medieval house known as Abbot House.
Some brave volunteers have taken on the task of mattocking. This is a technique we use when we want to remove a large amount of soil very quickly from a designated areas. Mattocking is ideal for an area where we aren’t expecting many small finds, fragile artifacts, or delicate features as it is a more rapidly destructive process than troweling. A mattock is like a giant pickaxe; however, unlike a pickaxe, the head of a mattock has a pick at one end and an adze at the other which we use to scrape the soil. The mattock can be pretty heavy to wield, so we made sure that people took turns to remove the soil from in front of a table stone to get a clearer view of the underlying plinths. Once all the soil is removed, we’ll be able to do a section drawing, which is essentially a vertical profile of the trench or feature edge.
At the last hour of work on Friday, a volunteer digger found the end of a tombstone just peeking out from one of the trench walls. In order to see the rest of the stone, we decided to dig a sondage. A sondage is a French word meaning “survey.” In an archaeological context, it is a ‘trench within a trench,’ excavated to reveal more information about a feature. The face of this newly revealed headstone may already be eroded, but hopefully some of the inscription remains which could provide us with a date or an identity for the buried person(s). This small extension to the trench has the potential to add one more story to the complex history of the Dunfermline graveyard.
Archaeology is more than just digging, and our work today included planning as well. Archaeological plans are precise, scaled drawings of features, completed with the aid of a planning frame and special grid paper. It’s an artistic process but it’s also a scientific one, and a good plan captures the essence of a site while retaining exact measurements and following established drawing conventions. For example, the edge of the trench (or limit of excavation) is usually marked with a dot-dash line, and the edge of a feature is marked with a solid line. In order to record a site, the archaeologist first lays down a planning frame and a metre square grid marked out in 10 cm increments. At our site, we are using a 1:20 scale which reduced what we see in real life to fit the known scale on the graph paper.
Planning a trench can be a slow, painstaking process. So why do archeologists use this instead of just taking photographs? Perspectives in photographs can distort the location of features and objects in the trench. Additionally, plans are better for demarcating features that do not show up as clearly in a photograph, like the edge of a pit or rocks which are a similar color to the soil. The plan drawings provide the archaeologist’s interpretation of the trench or feature in which they record. However, photographs are also essential for showing soil color and can provide far more detail than most plan drawings could at a 1:20 scale.
As the story of Dunfermline continues to unfold in our trench, we’re hoping that the good weather holds and we can keep on digging. Stay tuned for more trenchy good news tomorrow!
Tools: Become a Maverick Mattock Master!
Archaeology often uses the tools from other professions such as carpentry, architecture, and construction. Like our trowels and square grids, the mattock is another implement we have added to our tool kit. The first mattocks in Britain were Mesolithic tools often made with deer antler. They were important in the rise of agriculture and are still used to the present day in many tasks, such as clearing rocks and tree roots. In ancient Scotland, these versatile tools were used to strip the blubber from whale carcasses. Today, in addition to practical land uses, they are used by the military to dig foxholes and of course by us archaeologists. It really is a handy tool (pun intended) to take off layers of soil in a quick, expedient manner!
The historic town of Dunfermline, situated north of the Firth of Forth in Scotland and birthplace of the world-renowned industrialist Andrew Carnegie, has been a centre of historical importance from the early Medieval Period right up to the modern day. The most obvious example of this is the beautifully constructed Abbey which lies at the end of the ancient entrance to Dunfermline. The Abbey is the final resting place to many famous Kings and Queens of Scotland, ranging from Robert the Bruce to Queen Margaret.
The graveyard then is clearly of tremendous historical importance and the Pittencrieff Project focuses on illuminating the site’s use over time and uncovering valuable information of significance; information that is not just important to Dunfermline itself, but to Scotland and the UK as a whole.
Though excavation has been underway for several years now, most of this field season’s volunteers have only just arrived, including today’s blog writers – Katie and Stuart. Arriving after the initial start of the excavation can be a challenge, but the helpful project leaders (extremely friendly volunteers themselves) and the extent of the finds already uncovered have sparked our collective archaeological curiosity.
When looking at the graveyard, many gaps are noticeable amongst the long lines of headstones and (due to under-surface rubble) only through excavation will we be able to uncover these sunken graves which have long-since been lost to time. Therefore, the primary aim of this project is to reveal the murky history of the graveyard, which was active from 12th century to the end of the 19th century. Through the rediscovery of lost gravestones and other artefacts, we have already been able to begin building a picture of Dunfermline’s past.
One particularly notable example is the large number of bottles and clay pipes found in a corner of the graveyard across the street from a pub still in use today. It’s not a far stretch to imagine the locals perching atop gravestones and smoking their pipes on a warm summer afternoon after a long day of work – although perhaps that’s a stretch for the Scottish weather!
Unfortunately, however, after the good weather on the day of our arrival, we awoke today to the all-too-familiar sound of heavy rain making it extremely difficult to do any excavation on site, though at least the volunteers from parts far and wide get to experience true Scottish summertime.
Not to fear though! Work can still progress in the form of cleaning and sorting the finds which have already been made during previous excavation work. Toothbrushes and water buckets are used to gently clean bones, pieces of pottery, stems and bowls of clay pipes, as well as the occasional nail (likely used to secure the coffin lid – which would have been a symbol of higher status in earlier times). Although cleaning artefacts may sound dull when compared to excavation work, this important process allows us closely examine the finds which often reveal previously unknown details about individual artefacts.
Clumps of mud turn into bones as we clean while lines sometimes become evident on the surface, showing signs of butchery or cutting marks. In one case, a series of cut marks were seen on a piece of bone that had been clearly severed at a further point. Although this might initially indicate a butchery process, the repetition of the marks and clean cut most likely indicate a grave diggers spade striking the bone multiple times before finally cutting through.
As you may have noticed, even at this early stage we have already gleaned valuable information about the site and this will continue to shape our understanding of the graveyard as the dig progresses during the 2019 field season.
After just a day and a half, the site is already revealing itself to us and the next few weeks should only serve to illuminate the site further and we hope you’re as excited as we are!
We hope you’ll return tomorrow for another blogpost and – hopefully – better weather!
YAC members and leaders alike were shocked and disturbed on Saturday by the relatively dry soil conditions in some parts of the graveyard excavation site. “It’ll end in tears, you mark my words,” commented a worried leader as he pulled on his second hat. Rain came too little and too late in the day, which is just typical.
Anyway, we had a good turn out and got lots done. Further progress was made on the measured drawing of our split-personality gravestone, as you can see. Either we are seeing a scallop shell and saltire, or a shell-headed alien raising its weird arms in surrender to a citizen of Dunfermline. Remember that we have already seen clear images of aliens on a nearby gravestone.
Trench 3 (east extension)
At the south end of the site more of the masonry block that lies between table gravestone and the buried curbed low-marker was revealed. It’s a substantial piece of stone and seems to have been scored, perhaps to take mortar. It is wider than the table stone above, so were they ever related to each other? Several broken bricks turned up within the curbed area and another immediately underneath the table gravestone. Evidence of brick-wielding aliens I wonder?
Two fragments of a small glass vessel were among the finds, in amongst the ash and slag. The glass was photographed against a black background, but is actually clear. Note the mold-line running through the centre of the pieces.
Fragments of clay tobacco pipe were recovered, including part of a decorated bowl. Hopefully there is enough detail surviving for identification.
In a Far Corner of Trench 9
This trench should have been pretty much done and dusted (we always dust our trenches), but alas, our members will keep uncovering new features. Today’s surprise was a small, nicely finished masonry block right up against the corner of a large curbstone, for no readily obvious reason. At first glance it looks as though it may once have been part of another curb.
More glass was excavated around the block; this time fragments of a corrugated-style plate glass. A quick look revealed that at least two pieces fit together. There are plenty of bubbles within the glass, so it was not of the best quality.
Meanwhile in Trench 4
Work continued to expand Trench 4 westward – a move that has been predicted will end in conflict with the inhabitants of Trench 1. Be that as it may, we need to be able to record the gravestone at the eastern end of the trench and the curb running along the north edge. Excavation was made laborious by the dry soil conditions.
As a final treat, here are some nails that came out of some of the trenches today. More often than not they are incased in little knobly balls of rust, soil and stone, but we were lucky enough to find some unaturally clean examples. The nail on the right is particularly nice. The thick, square head shows that it is handmade. The others are most likely handmade too, but are more encrusted. Was the lefthand example a hook, or just a bent nail do you think?
Fife Young Archaeologists’ Club is offering archaeological illustration workshops to members over three weeks in June, with tuition by the experienced, Canadian artist and illustrator Alexis Ironside.
Subject matter comes in the form of medieval animal bone and pottery from our collection from Abbot House in Dunfermline, along with various fake and real medieval and Roman coins.
Even in these days of digital cameras and laser scanners, the ability to make an accurate, measured drawing of a find is an essential part of archaeology. The illustrator looks, interprets and gains an understanding what they draw. Their drawing then passes on those insights to the rest of us.
We will meet in the GlassRoom, Pittencrieff Park, Dunfermline from 18:30 – 20:00 on Wednesday 5th, 12th and 19th.
Existing members can book places by following the links below and RSVP’ing :
Anyone else wishing to participate should contact me by email to enquire about joining Young Archaeologists’ Club. The cost is only £15 a year and members have the opportunity to join our excavation in Dunfermline Abbey Graveyard and attend our meetings at the Scottish Fisheries Museum in Anstruther.
During one of our YAC meets I began seeing similar bits of plastic amongst the finds, my first thought was ‘it’s just rubbish’ but in truth this crisp packet is more interesting than just any bit of litter. Just as shown in the pictures the front of the packet remains intact, unfortunately the same can not be said for the rest of it and there is a chunk of packet still missing from its back. The design is fairly simple, sporting three main features –
1. The “New! CRACKLE fresh” headline.
As there was no date to be found on the remains of the package we can’t say exactly when it was from, we can assume though that it is from 1965-66 as that is when Golden Wonders brilliant new packaging came out. Branded ‘crackle fresh’ and far more efficient at keeping your crisps fresh than anything else at that point, with the bold lettering at the top of the packet proclaiming that this packet is “now crackle fresh!” we can safely assume that it was made not long after the release of the new packaging
2. “Golden Wonder Crisps”
This is a strange one as I have not been able to find any similar packaging on the internet. However, it does have a recognisable Golden Wonder figure.
3. A Blue Man
A blue, silhouetted man sporting a bonnet and eating from a bag of crisps. Our little ‘Golden Wonder’s man is one of the old logos for the company, in fact he is the original face of Golden Wonder Crisps – aside from their creator William Alexander. Due to the shape of the red bubble “Golden Wonder Crisps” resides in it is fair to say that this little man is proclaiming the brand name.
4. “Smokey Bacon”
And finally a red strip containing the number “4.0” and the words “Smokey Bacon Flavor”. Within the YAC group we decided that the “4.0” probably means the pack cost 4p when it was bought, with means that it would have cost about 74p if purchased today. Which is the same price as most single packets of crisps.
As for the flavour – Smokey Bacon – not much can be said, but the packet does have a fairly cute pig on the back. Although Golden Wonder was the first company to flavour their crisps, releasing their Cheese and Onion crisps in 1962, so they must have done a lot of work after the success of them as our crisp packet is from only 3 or 4 years later.
Finding this packet prompted me
to look into the history of Golden Wonder’s and crisps in general, here is some
of the information I found – it may be interesting to you.
The Golden Wonder crisp was
born in 1947 when an Edinburgh baker (William Alexander), started to make
crisps in the afternoon when all his baking was finished. He had the
inspiration to call his crisps after the Golden Wonder potato, and when
production really took off, it’s said that his factories ‘could transform an
unpeeled potato into a “crackle fresh” cellophane bag in twelve minutes!’
The original crisp however was
made in England by Dr William Kitchiner in the early 19th Century, this is
proved by his published book, ‘The Cook’s Oracle’ which contained a recipe for
crisps. Another English man, Frank Smith (a greengrocer) began selling crisps
to London shops and pubs. In 1913 he was producing 1000 bags of ‘Smiths Crisps’ every week, and by 1920 it
was half a million bags per week, Smiths Crisps continued at the head of the
market until 1965, when Golden Wonder officially gained the largest share of the market.
Interestingly, it was ‘Smiths
Crisps’ that were sent to the front line to try and keep British troops spirits
lifted during World War II, and at about the same time, more and more butchers
and bakers began to fry their own crisps during times of rationing to
supplement their income.
Anyway…..as you can see from the pictures, the size of
crisp packets today have not changed much from those in 1965, there may be less
weight of crisps in them today however, and the oils used for frying the
potatoes in is definitely lighter. Dr Kitchiner suggested using lard or dripping,
whereas we now use the lighter choice of vegetable oils – and it’s not just
potatoes that are used nowadays – it’s all kinds of vegetables and pulses –
there’s almost too much choice…..
Maybe someone in the future will also find themselves strangely interested and invested in one of our discarded crisp packets.